Wild-type adenoviruses, including human adenovirus type 5, are associated with a number of mild disorders, such as respiration infections in the elderly or children.
The entire adenovirus genome is a linear, double-stranded DNA of approximately 36Kb. There approximately 2 phases of adenovirus transcription, namely early and late phases, which occur before and after replication. The early-transcribed regions are E1, E2, E3 and E4.
The E1 gene products, including E1A and E1B, are involved in the replication of the virus. The E2 proteins provide the machinery for viral DNA replication and transcription of late genes. Most of the E3 proteins are involved in modulating the immune response of infected cells. The E4 gene products are involved in the metabolism of virus messenger RNA and provide functions that promote virus DNA replication and shut-off of host protein synthesis.
The prime receptor for human adenovirus is the Coxsackie/Adenovirus Receptor (CAR). Once inside the cell, the virus translocates to the nuclear pore complex, where the viral DNA is released into the nucleus. Transcription and replication take place in the nucleus of the infected cell.