Sorafenib and HDAC inhibitors synergize with TRAIL to kill tumor cells

Hossein A. Hamed, ect
Journal of Cellular Physiology, 2013

The present studies were designed to compare and contrast the abilities of TRAIL (death receptor agonist) and obatoclax (BCL-2 family inhibitor) to enhance sorafenib¿+¿HDAC inhibitor toxicity in GI tumor cells. Sorafenib and HDAC inhibitor treatment required expression of CD95 to kill GI tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. In cells lacking CD95 expression, TRAIL treatment, and to a lesser extent obatoclax, enhanced the lethal effects of sorafenib¿+¿HDAC inhibitor exposure. In hepatoma cells expressing CD95 a similar data pattern emerged with respect to the actions of TRAIL. Downstream of the death receptor the ability of TRAIL to enhance cell killing correlated with reduced AKT, ERK1/2, p70 S6K, and mTOR activity and enhanced cleavage of pro-caspase 3 and reduced expression of MCL-1 and BCL-XL. Over-expression of BCL-XL or MCL-1 or expression of dominant negative pro-caspase 9 protected cells from drug toxicity. Expression of activated AKT, p70 S6K, mTOR, and to a lesser extent MEK1EE also protected cells that correlated with maintained c-FLIP-s expression, reduced BIM expression, and increased BAD phosphorylation. In vivo sorafenib¿+¿HDAC inhibitor toxicity against tumors was increased in a greater than additive fashion by TRAIL. Collectively, our data argue that TRAIL, rather than obatoclax, is the most efficacious agent at promoting sorafenib¿+¿HDAC inhibitor lethality. J. Cell. Physiol. 228: 1996–2005, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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Journal of Cellular Physiology
DOI: 10.1002/jcp.24362