Deciphering Mechanisms Controlling Placental Artery Endothelial Cell Migration Stimulated by Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor

Wu-xiang Liao, etc
Endocrinology, 2010

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) stimulated fetoplacental artery endothelial (oFPAE) cell migration and activated multiple signaling pathways including ERK2/1, p38MAPK, Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK1/2), v-Akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1 (Akt1), and c-Src in oFPAE cells. VEGF-induced cell migration was blocked by specific kinase inhibitors of JNK1/2 (SP600125), c-Src (4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d] pyrimidine), and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt (wortmannin) but not ERK2/1 (U0126) and p38MAPK (SB203580). VEGF-induced cell migration was associated with dynamic actin reorganization and focal adhesion as evidenced by increased stress fiber formation and phosphorylation of cofilin-1 and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and paxillin. Inhibition of JNK1/2, c-Src, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt suppressed VEGF-induced stress fiber formation and cofilin-1 phosphorylation. c-Src inhibition suppressed VEGF-induced phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase, paxillin, and focal adhesion. VEGF-induced cell migration requires endogenous nitric oxide (NO) as: 1) VEGF-stimulated phosphorylation of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) via activation of Akt, JNK1/2, and Src; 2) a NO donor diethylenetriamine-NO-stimulated cell migration; and 3) NO synthase inhibition blocked VEGF-induced cell migration. Targeted down-regulation and overexpression of caveolin-1 both inhibited VEGF-induced cell migration. Caveolin-1 down-regulation suppressed VEGF-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt, JNK, eNOS, c-Src, and FAK; however, basal activities of c-Src and FAK were elevated in parallel with increased stress fiber formation and focal adhesion. Caveolin-1 overexpression also inhibited VEGF-induced phosphorylation of Akt, JNK, c-Src, FAK, and eNOS. Thus, VEGF-induced placental endothelial cell migration requires activation of complex pathways that are paradoxically regulated by caveolin-1.

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University of California-Irvine