Deficiency of Cardiomyocyte-specific-microRNA-378 Contributes to the Development of Cardiac Fibrosis involving a TGFß1-dependent Paracrine Mechanism

RS Nagalingam, etc
JBC, 2014

Understanding the regulation of cardiac fibrosis is critical for controlling adverse cardiac remodeling during heart failure. Previously we identified miR-378 as a cardiomyocytes-abundant miRNA down-regulated in several experimental models of cardiac hypertrophy and in patients with heart failure. To understand the consequence of miR-378 down-regulation during cardiac remodeling, our current study employed a LNA-modified-antimiR to target miR-378 in vivo. Results showed development of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and fibrosis in mouse hearts. Mechanistically, miR-378 depletion was found to induce TGFß1 expression in mouse hearts and in cultured cardiomyocytes. Among various secreted cytokines in the conditioned-media of miR-378 depleted cardiomyocytes, only TGFß1 levels were found to be increased. The increase was prevented by miR-378 expression. Treatment of cardiac fibroblasts with the conditioned-media of miR-378 depleted myocytes activated pSMAD2/3 and induced fibrotic gene expression. This effect was counteracted by including a TGFß1-neutralizing antibody in the conditioned-medium. In cardiomyocytes, adenoviruses expressing dominant negative N-Ras or c-Jun prevented antimiR-mediated induction of TGFß1 mRNA, documenting the importance of Ras and AP-1 signaling in this response. Our study demonstrates that reduction of miR-378 during pathological conditions contributes to cardiac remodeling by promoting paracrine release of profibrotic cytokine, TGFß1 from cardiomyocytes. Our data imply that presence in cardiomyocyte of miR-378 plays a critical role in the protection of neighboring fibroblasts from activation by pro-fibrotic stimuli.

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doi: 10.1074/jbc.M114.580977