Binding of FoxM1 to G2/M gene promoters is dependent upon B-Myb
Christin F. Down, etc Biochim Biophys Acta,
The promoters of genes which regulate entry into and progress through mitosis are typically induced maximally in G2 by transcription factors that include B-Myb and FoxM1. As FoxM1 gene transcription is a target of B-Myb, we investigated in this study how these transcription factors functionally interact to regulate these G2/M genes. Using a 3T3 cell line containing floxed B-myb alleles (B-myb(F/F)) that could be conditionally deleted by Cre recombinase, we confirmed that B-myb knockout caused both decreased mRNA expression of several G2/M genes, including FoxM1, and delayed entry into mitosis. Although FoxM1 protein expression was actually unaffected by B-myb knockout when quiescent B-myb(F/F) 3T3 cells re-entered the cell cycle upon serum-stimulation, chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that FoxM1 binding to G2/M promoters was substantially reduced. FoxM1 transcriptional activity requires sequential phosphorylation by Cyclin-dependent kinases and Plk1, which are B-Myb target genes, and we found that phosphorylation at Plk1-specific sites was somewhat reduced upon B-myb knockout. Neither this effect nor nuclear accumulation of FoxM1, which was unaffected by B-myb knockout, was sufficient to account for the dependence on B-Myb for FoxM1 promoter binding, however. More significantly, assays using paired Birc5 (survivin) promoter-luciferase reporters with either wild-type or mutated Myb binding sites showed that FoxM1 was unable to bind and activate the promoter in the absence of B-Myb binding. Our data suggest that B-Myb is required as a pioneer factor to enable FoxM1 binding to G2/M gene promoters and explains how these transcription factors may collaborate to induce mitosis.